Overeenkomst inzake de bevordering en wederzijdse bescherming van investeringen tussen het Koninkrijk der Nederlanden en de Republiek Ghana
The Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
The Government of the Republic of Ghana,
hereinafter referred to as the Contracting Parties,
Desiring to strengthen the traditional ties of friendship between their countries, to extend and intensify the economic relations between them particularly with respect to investments by the nationals of one Contracting Party in the territory of the other Contracting Party,
Recognizing that agreement upon the treatment to be accorded to such investments will stimulate the flow of capital and technology and the economic development of the Contracting Parties and that fair and equitable treatment of investment is desirable,
Have agreed as follows:
the term "investments" shall comprise every kind of asset and more particularly, though not exclusively:
movable and immovable property as well as any other rights in rem in respect of every kind of asset;
rights derived from shares, bonds and other kinds of interests in companies and joint ventures:
title to money and other assets and to any performance having an economic value;
rights in the field of intellectual property, technical processes, goodwill and know-how; and
rights granted under public law, including rights to prospect, explore, extract and win natural resources.
the term "nationals" shall comprise with regard to either Contracting Party:
natural persons having the nationality of that Contracting Party in accordance with its law;
without prejudice to the provisions of (iii) hereafter, legal persons constituted under the law of that Contracting Party; and
legal persons located either in Ghana or the Netherlands and controlled, directly or indirectly, by nationals of that Contracting Party.
the term "territory" includes the maritime areas adjacent to the oast of the State concerned, to the extent to which that State may exercise sovereign rights or jurisdiction in those areas according to international law.
Article 2. Promotion of Investments
Either Contracting Party shall, within the framework of its laws and regulations, promote economic cooperation through the protection in its territory of investments of nationals of the other Contracting Party. Subject to its right to exercise powers conferred by its laws or regulations, each Contracting Party shall admit such investments.
Each Contracting Party shall ensure fair and equitable treatment to the investments of nationals of the other Contracting Party and shall not impair, by unreasonable or discriminatory measures, the operation, management, maintenance, use, enjoyment or disposal thereof by those nationals.
More particularly, each Contracting Party shall accord to such investments full security and protection which in any case shall not be less than that accorded either to investments of its own nationals or to investments of nationals of any third State, whichever is more favourable to the national concerned.
If a Contracting Party has accorded special advantages to nationals of any third State by virtue of agreements establishing customs unions, economic unions or similar institutions, or on the basis of interim agreements leading to such unions or institutions, that Contracting Party shall not be obliged to accord such advantages to nationals of the other Contracting Party.
Each Contracting Party shall observe any obligation it may have entered into with regard to investments of nationals of the other Contracting Party.
If the provisions of law of either Contracting Party or obligations under international law existing at present or established hereafter between the Contracting Parties in addition to the present Agreement contain a regulation, whether general or specific, entitling investments by nationals of the other Contracting Party to a treatment more favourable than is provided for by the present Agreement, such regulation shall to the extent that it is more favourable prevail over the present Agreement.
Article 4. Taxation
With respect to taxes, fees, charges and to fiscal deductions and exemptions, each Contracting Party shall accord to nationals of the other Contracting Party who are engaged in any economic activity in its territory, treatment not less favourable than that accorded to its own nationals or to those of any third State, whichever is more favourable to the nationals concerned. For this purpose, however, there shall not be taken into account any special fiscal advantages accorded by that Party under an agreement for the avoidance of double taxation, by virtue of its participation in a custom union, economic union or similar institution, or on the basis of reciprocity with a third State.
Article 5. Repatriation of Investments and Returns
The Contracting Parties shall guarantee that payments related to an investment may be transferred. The transfers shall be made in a freely convertible currency, without undue restriction or delay. Such transfers include in particular though not exclusively:
profits, interest, dividends and other current income;
for the acquisition of raw or auxiliary materials, semi-fabricated or finished products, or
to replace capital assets in order to safeguard the continuity of an investment;
additional funds necessary for the development of an investment;
funds in repayment of loans;
earnings of natural persons; and
the proceeds of sale or liquidation of the investment.
Investments of nationals of either Contracting Party shall not be nationalised, expropriated or subjected to measures having effect equivalent to nationalisation or expropriation (hereinafter referred to as "expropriation") in the territory of the other Contracting Party unless the following conditions are complied with:
the measures are taken for a public purpose related to the internal needs of that Contracting Party, on a non-discriminatory basis and under due process of law;
the measures are accompanied by provision for the payment of compensation amounting to the genuine value of the investment expropriated immediately before the expropriation or before the impending expropriation became public knowledge, whichever is the earlier;
payments of compensation shall be made without undue delay and shall be freely transferable to the country designated by the claimants concerned and in the currency of the country of which the claimants are nationals or in any freely convertible currency accepted by the claimants; and
if the compensation is not paid within six months after its determination, it shall from that date attract interest at the normal commercial rate until the date of payment.
The national affected shall have a right, under the law of the Contracting Party making the expropriation, to prompt determination of the amount of compensation either by law or by agreement between the parties and to prompt review, by a judicial or other independent authority of that Party, of his case and of the valuation of his investment in accordance with the principles set out in paragraph (1) of this Article, without prejudice to the procedure contained in Article 9 of this Agreement.
Article 7. Compensation for Losses
Nationals of the one Contracting Party who suffer losses in respect of their investments in the territory of the other Contracting Party owing to war or other armed conflict, revolution, a state of national emergency, revolt, insurrection or riot shall be accorded by the latter Contracting Party treatment, as regards restitution, indemnification, compensation or other settlement, no less favourable than that which that Contracting Party accords to its own nationals or to nationals of any third State, whichever is more favourable to the nationals concerned.
Article 8. Subrogation
If the investments of a national of the one Contracting Party are insured against non-commercial risks under a system established by law, any subrogation of the insurer of re-insurer into the rights of the said national pursuant to the terms of such insurance shall be recognized by the other Contracting Party.
Disputes between one Contracting Party and a national of the other Contracting Party concerning an obligation of the former under this Agreement in relation to an investment of the latter in the territory of the former Contracting Party shall if possible be settled amicably.
If such disputes cannot be settled according to the provisions of paragraph 1 of this Article within a period of six months from the date either party to the dispute requested amicable settlement, the dispute shall, by mutual consent, be submitted to international arbitration or conciliation.
Where the dispute is referred to international arbitration or conciliation, the national and the Contracting Party concerned in the dispute may, subject to the choice of the aggrieved party, refer the dispute either to:
the International Centre for the Settlement of Investment Disputes (having regard to the provisions, where applicable, of the Convention on the Settlement of Investment Disputes between States and Nationals of other States opened for signature at Washington D.C. on 18 March 1965 and the additional facility for the administration of conciliation, arbitration and fact-finding proceedings); or
an international arbitrator or an ad hoc arbitration tribunal to be appointed by a special agreement or established under the arbitration rules of the United Nations Commission on International Trade Law.
Each Contracting Party hereby consents to the submission of an investment dispute to international arbitration or conciliation.
A legal person which is incorporated or constituted under the law in force in the territory of one Contracting Party and in which before such a dispute arises the majority of shares are owned by nationals of the other Contracting Party shall in accordance with Article 25 (2) (b) of the above Convention be treated for the purposes of the Convention as a company of the other Contracting Party.
Article 10. Applicability
The provisions of this Agreement shall, from the date of entry into force thereof, also apply to existing investments which have been made before that date.
Article 11. Territorial Extensions
As regards the Kingdom of the Netherlands, the present Agreement shall apply to the part of the Kingdom in Europe, the Netherlands Antilles and to Aruba, unless the notification provided for in Article 14, paragraph (1) provides otherwise.
Article 12. Consultation
Either Contracting Party may propose the other Party to consult on any matter concerning the interpretation or application of the Agreement. The other Party shall accord sympathetic consideration to and shall afford adequate opportunity for such consulation.
Any dispute between the Contracting Parties concerning the interpretation or application of the present Agreement, which cannot be settled within a reasonable lapse of time by means of diplomatic negotiations, shall, unless the Parties have otherwise agreed, be submitted, at the request of either Party, to an arbitral tribunal, composed of three members.
Each Party shall appoint one arbitrator and the two arbitrators thus appointed shall together appoint a third arbitrator as their chairman who is not a national of either Party.
If one of the Parties fails to appoint its arbitrator and has not proceeded to do so within two months after an invitation from the other Party to make such appointment, the latter Party may invite the President of the International Court of Justice to make the necessary appointment.
If the two arbitrators are unable to reach agreement, in the two months following their appointment, on the choice of the third arbitrator, either Party may invite the President of the International Court of Justice, to make the necessary appointment.
If, in the cases provided for in the paragraphs (2) and (3) of this Article, the President of the International Court of Justice is prevented from discharging the said function or is a national of either Contracting Party, the Vice-President shall be invited to make the necessary appointments. If the Vice-President is prevented from discharging the said function or is a national of either Party the most senior member of the Court available who is not a national of either Party shall be invited to make the necessary appointments.
The tribunal shall decide on the basis of respect for the law. Before the tribunal decides, it may at any stage of the proceedings propose to the Parties that the dispute be settled amicably. The foregoing provisions shall not prejudice the power of the tribunal to decide the dispute ex aequo et bono if the Parties so agree.
Unless the Parties decide otherwise, the tribunal shall determine its own procedure.
The tribunal shall reach its decision by a majority of votes. Such decision shall be final and binding on the Parties.
The present Agreement shall enter into force on the first day of the second month following the date on which the Contracting Parties have informed each other in writing that the procedures constitutionally required therefor in their respective countries have been complied with, and shall remain in force for a period of fifteen years.
Unless notice of termination has been given by either Contracting Party at least six months before the date of the expiry of its validity, the present Agreement shall be extended tacitly for periods of ten years, each Contracting Party reserving the right to terminate the Agreement upon notice of at least six months before the date of expiry of the current period of validity.
In respect of investments made before the date of the termination of the present Agreement the foregoing Articles thereof shall continue to be effective for a further period of fifteen years from that date.
Subject to the period mentioned in paragraph (2) of this Article, the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands shall be entitled to terminate the application of the present Agreement separately in respect of any of the parts of the Kingdom.
IN WITNESS WHEREOF, the undersigned representatives, duly authorized thereto, have signed the present Agreement.
DONE in duplicate at Accra this 31st day of March 1989.
For the Government of the Kingdom of the Netherlands:
(sd.) Y. M. C. T. VAN ROOY
(sd.) R. S. BEKINK
(sd.) K. BOTCHWEY